[51, 54, 66, 68] In the pathogenesis of ASH and NASH, activated K

[51, 54, 66, 68] In the pathogenesis of ASH and NASH, activated Kupffer cells exert their pathogenic effects predominantly via inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, or MCP-1.[51, 53, 69, 70] Although TLR4-dependent mechanisms are involved in upregulation of

inflammatory mediators, IL-1β is specific because it is produced as inactive pro-IL-1β and buy Dinaciclib requires inflammasomes for processing. Caspase-1, the effector component of the inflammasome, cleaves pro-IL-1β into the bioactive IL-1β,[71] which acts in an autocrine/paracrine manner via the Type-I IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1). The activation of IL-1R1 is inhibited by its binding to the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), a

naturally occurring cytokine whose function is to prevent the biologic response to IL-1.[72] Studies have demonstrated a pathogenic role of IL-1 signaling in the murine model of NASH,[51, 54] upregulation of inflammasome components in the liver and increased serum levels of IL-1Ra in patients with NASH[66, 73] and increased levels of IL-1β in patients with ASH.[74] However, there were no data supporting the causal role of IL-1 signaling in ASH, and there were only limited data on the cellular source and mechanism of IL-1β activation in NASH. In our studies, we observed that inflammasome see more and IL-1β were activated in ASH, as documented by increased expression of inflammasome components NALP3 (NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3), ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD), and caspase-1 in the livers of alcohol-fed mice, and by

increased activity of liver caspase-1 and elevated levels of cleaved IL-1β in the liver and in the serum.[67] Deficiency of inflammasome components ASC or caspase-1, significantly ameliorated alcohol-induced liver inflammation, steatosis, and damage. Similar protection was observed in mice deficient in IL-1R1 which lack IL-1 signaling, and in mice treated with recombinant IL-1Ra which inhibits IL-1 signaling.[67] Similar to ASH, the of methionine-choline deficient diet (MCD)-based mouse model of NASH demonstrated activation of caspase-1 in the liver and increased levels of cleaved IL-1β in the liver and in the serum after six weeks of treatment.[66, 68] Using the high-fat diet model of NASH, we observed that caspase-1 and IL-1β became activated at a later time point of nine months along with increased inflammation, but not at four weeks when liver pathology was dominated by steatosis only.[66] This finding contrasted with our ASH data which demonstrated that inflammasome activation occurs very early in the course of alcohol treatment.[67] Furthermore, deficiency of caspase-1 significantly ameliorated only liver inflammation induced by the MCD diet but did not alleviate liver damage.

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