5 Consequently, in order to enhance the utility of IPAQ and to further evaluate its psychometrics worldwide, efforts have been made to translate and adapt the IPAQ in many other countries, but most of the research in this context were from developed Western countries.7–14 In Africa, the psychometric selleck chem properties of IPAQ have only been tested in South Africa as part of the initial development process of the questionnaire,5 and in older adults.15 Since the largest increases and burden
of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are in low-income countries where the understanding of evidence-based strategies for increasing PA remains poor,16–19 improving PA research is a top priority for them.20 However, to advance PA research in Africa, it is important to first develop or tailor standardised measures to be culturally sensitive to PA behaviours of people in the region’s countries. Since Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa with culture and languages similar to most of the other West
African countries, it is a good choice to evaluate the IPAQ for cultural and psychometric relevance in this country. Recently, a cultural adaptation study of the IPAQ-SF was conducted among adults in Nigeria,21 with good evidence of test–retest reliability similar to findings in some other studies.10 22–24 However, because the IPAQ-SF is not domain specific and does not provide context-specific information on PA behaviour, it is important to evaluate the IPAQ-LF for relevance in Nigeria. Psychometric evaluation of a culturally modified version of the IPAQ-LF in sub-Saharan African
countries can impact PA research and surveillance in the African region where the prevalence of inactivity related NCDs is on the increase.20 25 The aim of the present study was to investigate the reliability and an aspect of validity of a modified version of the IPAQ-LF among adults in Nigeria. Methods Participants A purposive sample of 180 adults from eight neighbourhoods that varied in socioeconomic status and walkability in Maiduguri city were recruited for the study. The sampling and neighbourhood selection strategy have been described in detail elsewhere.26 Maiduguri, with an estimated population of 749 123 people, is the capital and largest city of Borno State in North-Eastern Brefeldin_A Nigeria.27 The city attracts immigrants from neighbouring countries of Cameroon, Niger and Chad Republic and the Hausa language is the common means of communication for commercial activities among the diverse inhabitants of Maiduguri.27 28 Participants were eligible for this study if they were willing to self-complete a written survey twice in either Hausa or English language. However, researchers (UMB and STP) were in attendance to provide translation and interpretation assistance to participants (n=11) who required help to complete the survey.