2006) and in fetuses in vitro (Vasung et al. 2011). The best results in terms of tractography reconstruction were obtained with the 0.08 threshold. Then a second investigator

expert in fetal neuroradiology (NG) evaluated each of the reconstructed tracts and validated the results. In case of bad scoring by the expert, tracking was redone once, and finally not considered if not approved by the expert at that time. The percentage of rejected reconstructed tractography was 4% (5/119). Diffusion tensor parameters of each bundle Masks of the reconstructed bundles were applied to the parametric maps of ADC, FA, λ1, λ2, and λ3 to compute the DTI parameter Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical values of each bundle with SPM 5 (Welcome institute, London). The average values of the ADC, the FA, the λ1 = λ//, λ2, and λ3 for the whole reconstructed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical bundles were obtained for each tract. The λ were obtained by average the λ2 and λ3 values of each reconstructed tracts (www.mricro.com). Statistical analysis Statistical analyses

were performed using the JMP 2008 software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Diffusion characteristics of WM Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tracts independent of gestational age The means, medians, minima, and maxima of DTI parameters (ADC, FA, λ//, λ) measured on each type of bundles for all fetuses were calculated and selleck chemical compared bundles by bundles using ANOVA (P < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons) to assess the differences in diffusion characteristics between the different WM bundles Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical independently of the gestational age. Variation of WM tract diffusion characteristics according to gestational age For

each DTI parameter of each WM bundle, Z-scores were computed for each subject relative to the mean values and standard deviations of the whole population of fetuses. ANOVA was conducted on these diffusion parameters to evaluate the effect of age and bundle type (statistical threshold P < 0.05 after False Discovery Rate (FDR) correction). Variations of diffusion parameters (ADC, FA, λ//, λ) for each type of WM bundle were modeled as a function of age first by linear regression Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (Kasprian et al. 2008) and also by polynomial fitting functions (degree 3) (Schneider et al. Resveratrol 2007). Results Diffusion characteristics of WM tracts independent of gestational age The SNR of b0 images measured in the 17 included fetuses resulted in a mean value of 14.07 ± 3.17. All selected tracts studied were validated by the two experts (EZ, NG) except for five OR (four rights, one left) in four different subjects (age: 27 GW, 34 GW, 34 GW, 35 GW) that were removed for the subsequent analyses. Thus, 34 CSTs, 29 OR, and 17 CC were identified and characterized (Figs. 3 and and44). Figure 4 Example of DTI tractography of the CC obtained in utero and in vivo for fetal brain. Tractography three-dimensional reconstructions obtained with the Runge Kutta method (order 4) of the CC divided in three subparts: body of the corpus callosum (CCb) at …