Solid As speciation was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD)

Solid As speciation was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with X-ray energy dispersive elemental spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), while liquid As speciation was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.\n\nComposting

reduced the fern biomass by 38%, comparable to 35% reduction of the low-As fern biomass containing similar to 12 mg As kg(-1), indicating that the high As concentration in P. vittata had little detrimental effect on microorganisms involved in composting. Total As on a per composter basis and water-soluble As in composted biomass were lowered by 25% VS-4718 chemical structure and 32%, respectively. Arsenic loss from the biomass resulted mainly from generation of compost leachate, with less from the As volatilization; whereas As immobilization

was due to oxidation of As(III) to As(V), followed by precipitation of hoernesite [Mg(3)(AsO(4))(2)a <...8H(2)O] which was evidenced by XRD and SEM-EDS analysis.\n\nResults from this study indicate that composting As-rich fern significantly reduced its biomass, As content, and water-soluble As. It seems that composting can be an effective step for treating As-rich biomass before disposal in landfill.”
“Since 2008, it has been recognised by most health authorities worldwide that the abuse of newly-emerging psychoactive drugs, (‘designer drugs’/'legal highs’; DD), in youth is a rapidly increasing problem, especially in the EU, threatening to offset gains made in tackling established and illegal drugs which they are intended to mimic; DD diversity is continually

increasing to circumvent laws. The aim Selleckchem SYN-117 of the study was to determine the scale of DD abuse/availability amongst Polish youth. The surveyed test population was randomly selected from a representative group of adolescents attending high schools, secondary schools and universities throughout Poland. Questionnaires were completed by 14,511 subjects (10,083 school pupils and 4,428 students). Few persons from each group admitted using DDs; 453 schoolpupils (4.49%) vs. 81 students (1.83%). More males (4.74%) took DDs than females (2.77%). The tendency to take DDs in the company of friends was high in both DD-taking groups (>80%). DDs were consumed mostly in open spaces (34.15%), discos/pubs (21.13%) and boarding school/friend’s house (20.57). Most frequently, DDs came from shops (57.68%), friends (31.46%) or dealers (10.11%). Ensuing symptoms included; happy/euphoric mood (58.80%), talkativeness (42.51%) and hallucinations (22.85%). Over 74% of DD-takers in both groups experienced adverse reactions, and those requiring help sought it from: friends/colleagues (6.74%), doctors (5.06%), and hospitals (4.87%), but most rarely from parents/guardians (2.62%).

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