Karger AG, Basel”
“Human astroviruses have been shown in num

Karger AG, Basel”
“Human astroviruses have been shown in numerous studies to be an important cause of gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. The present communication addresses their characterization by use of oligonucleotide microarray hybridization. The system developed consists of an RT-PCR using primers of low degeneracy capable of detecting all eight serotypes of human astroviruses. RT-PCR products are then hybridized against a microarray consisting of short oligonucleotide probes 17-18 nucleotides in length. Cy3-labeled ssDNA targets are generated using a Cy3-labeled primer in the RT-PCR. The non-labeled strand is enzymatically digested, and the labeled target is rescued by column purification.

This method of generating labeled target uses equimolar concentrations of selleck chemicals llc the amplifying primers and does not compromise assay sensitivity for initial detection of the virus. Hybridization can be performed without the need for additional amplification. Although the amplicon spans a relatively conserved region of the astrovirus genome, the use of short probes enables type distinction despite such limited diversity. Probes differing by as little as a single nucleotide can be used to distinguish isolates. The microarray developed was capable of distinguishing representatives of

the eight known serotypes of human astroviruses. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Tomato GSK126 yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) is well known in Mediterranean countries, where it has been causing severe losses in tomato crops for decades.

Until recently, two viruses (with several isolates) in the genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae, have been associated with the epidemics: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato yellow, leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV). However, recombinants between these, such as Tomato Yellow; leaf curl Malaga virus (TYLCMalV), are spreading, and new methods for detecting all viruses present in the region are needed. By considering all DNA sequences available of viruses causing TYLCD in the Mediterranean Selleckchem AZD6738 basin, a PCR/RFLP protocol was developed that amplifies the intergenic region in a multiplex reaction, followed by digestion with AclI (=Psp1406I) restriction enzyme. This procedure generates an easily recognizable pattern on gels, with DNA fragments of specific size for each virus species and each recombinant: 800 bp for TYLCSV, 410 bp for TYLCV, 570 bp for TYLCMalV and the other detected recombinants, 640 bp for hypothetical recombinants of different type. This new method gives, with a single reaction, an overview of the species present in the sample and will be useful for screening the causal agents of TYLCD, as well as in breeding programs for resistance. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. Previous studies have mapped the disease to chromosome 7q, where the homeobox transcription factor ENGRAILED 2 (EN2) gene is located.

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