Characterization of their binding to IL-15R alpha and their ability to stimulate the T-cell growth response showed that M38 binds as strongly as native IL-15 to IL-15R alpha and acts as an effective agonist of IL-15.”
“While a large number of mosquito-transmitted alphaviruses are known to cause serious human diseases, there are no licensed vaccines that protect against alphavirus JSH-23 price infections. The alphavirus chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has caused multiple recent outbreaks of chikungunya fever. This virus has the potential to cause a worldwide epidemic and has generated strong interest
in development of a prophylactic CHIKV vaccine. We report here on the development of a potent experimental vaccine for CHIKV based on a chimeric vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the entire CHIKV envelope polyprotein (E3-E2-6K-E1) in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G). These VSV Delta G-CHIKV chimeras incorporated functional CHIKV glycoproteins into the viral envelope in place of VSV G. The chimeric viruses YM155 cell line were attenuated for growth in tissue culture but could be propagated to high titers without VSV G complementation. They also generated robust neutralizing antibody and cellular immune responses to CHIKV in mice after a single dose and protected mice against CHIKV infection. VSV Delta G-alphavirus chimeras could have general applicability as alphavirus
“In human populations, there is a well-defined sequence of involvement in drugs of abuse, in which the use of nicotine or alcohol precedes the use of marijuana, which in turn, precedes the use of cocaine. The term “”Gateway Hypothesis”" describes this developmental sequence of drug involvement. In prior work, we have developed a mouse model to
study the underlying metaplastic behavioral, cellular and molecular mechanisms by which exposure to one drug, namely nicotine, Alisertib purchase affects the response to another drug, namely cocaine. We found that nicotine enhances significantly the changes in synaptic plasticity in the striatum induced by cocaine (Levine et al., 2011). Here we ask: does the metaplastic effect of nicotine on cocaine also apply in the amygdala, a brain region that is involved in the orchestration of emotions and in drug addiction? We find that pretreatment with nicotine enhances long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) in response to cocaine in the amygdala. Both short-term (1 day) and long-term (7 days) preexposure to nicotine facilitate the induction of LTP by cocaine. The effect of nicotine on LTP is unidirectional; exposure to nicotine following treatment with cocaine is ineffective. This metaplastic effect of nicotine on cocaine is long lasting but reversible. The facilitation of LTP can be obtained for 24 but not 40 days after cessation of nicotine. As is the case in the striatum, pretreatment with Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, simulates the priming effect of nicotine.