(C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The hypothalamic neuropeptide, orexin-A has a number of regulatory effects in humans and pre-clinical evidence suggests a link to neuroendocrine
systems known to be pathophysiologically related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there are no reports of central nervous system (CNS) or peripheral orexin-A concentrations in patients with PTSD, or any anxiety disorder. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma levels selleck chemicals of orexin-A were serially determined in patients with PTSD and healthy comparison subjects to characterize the relationships between orexin-A (in the CNS and peripheral circulation) and central indices of monoaminergic selleck kinase inhibitor neurotransmission and to determine the degree to which CNS orexin-A concentrations reflect those in the circulating blood. CSF and plasma samples were
obtained serially over a 6-h period in 10 male combat veterans with chronic PTSD and 10 healthy male subjects through an indwelling subarachnoid catheter. Orexin-A concentrations were determined in plasma and CSF and CSF levels of the serotonin metabolite, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), and the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid (HVA), were determined over the sampling period. CSF and plasma orexin-A concentrations were significantly lower in the patients with PTSD as compared with healthy comparison subjects at all time points. In addition, CSF orexin-A concentrations strongly and negatively correlated with PTSD severity as measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) in patients with PTSD. Peripheral
Selleckchem PS-341 and CNS concentrations of orexin-A were correlated in the healthy comparison subjects and peripheral orexin-A also correlated with CNS serotonergic tone. These findings suggest low central and peripheral orexin-A activity in patients with chronic PTSD are related to symptom severity and raise the possibility that orexin-A is part of the pathophysiological mechanisms of combat-related PTSD. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Coxsackievirus A1 (CVA1) belongs to human enterovirus species C within the family Picornaviridae, order Picornavirales. Two Chinese CVA1 isolates, HT-THLH02F/XJ/CHN/2011 and KS-ZPH01F/XJ/CHN/2011, were isolated from stool specimens of two healthy children in the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region of China. They were found to elicit cytopathic effects in a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line, and complete genome sequences of these two CVA1 isolates revealed that natural intertypic recombination events occurred between CVA1 and CVA22.”
“Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive technique that moderates cognitive and motor function. The effects of tDCS on cognitive and motor tasks vary among individuals. However, the source of the inter-individual variability remains unknown.