33 ± 0.04* 0.34 ± 0.03* 0.34 ± 0.04* 0.32 ± 0.04* Table 2 Ralimetinib price demonstrates the influence of the test beverages on endogenous and exogenous carbohydrate and fat oxidation rates during the submaximal exercise trial. Data for carbohydrate oxidation efficiency are also shown to demonstrate the progressive benefit of a combined sugar beverage overall and at 30 minute averaged timepoints. Data are presented as mean ± SE; n = 14. P, Placebo; MD, maltodextrin beverage; MD + F, maltodextrin-fructose beverage. CHOENDO, endogenous carbohydrate oxidation; FATTOT, total fat oxidation; CHOEXO, exogenous carbohydrate oxidation; CHOEXO Eff, carbohydrate oxidation efficiency
*denotes a significant difference (P < 0.038) to P within respective time period. † denotes a significant difference between MD and MD + F (P < 0.025) within respective time period. Assessment of exogenous carbohydrate efficiency (CHOEXO Eff%) was additionally undertaken see more across the oxidation trial. Mean CHOEXO Eff% was significantly greater with find more MD + F and MD compared to P for all assessed time periods (P < 0.0001). Additionally CHOEXO Eff% was significantly greater with MD + F compared to MD overall (74.7 ± 4.4% v 57.9 ± 2.1% respectively; P = 0.019), and at respective assessed timepoints from 90 minutes (P < 0.025). Endogenous carbohydrate oxidation Data for mean CHOENDO are represented in Table 2. In a similar pattern to mean CHOTOT, a significant
interaction effect was found between treatment conditions for mean CHOENDO between 60–150 minutes of the oxidation trial (F = 13.822; P = 0.0001). Both MD + F and MD conditions demonstrated lower mean Selleckchem Verteporfin CHOENDO during the last 90 minutes of continuous exercise compared to P (1.47 ± 0.07 g.min-1, 1.51 ± 0.10 g.min-1 and 1.97 ± 0.12 g.min-1 respectively; P < 0.004). Whilst mean CHOENDO progressively declined for each averaged 30 minute period within treatment condition, the same pattern was observed with both carbohydrate beverages demonstrating significantly lower CHOENDO in comparison
to P (P < 0.038). No differences were observed between MD + F and MD (P > 0.05). Total fat oxidation Data for mean FATTOT are shown in Table 2. Over the final 90 minutes of the oxidation trial, mean FATTOT was statistically different between conditions (F = 10.494; P = 0.0001). Specifically, both carbohydrate beverages demonstrated lower mean FATTOT in comparison to P (P = 0.008). Whilst absolute values were lower for MD + F in relation to MD, mean FATTOT was not statistically different between carbohydrate beverages (0.33 ± 0.04 g.min-1 for MD + F v 0.41 ± 0.05 g.min-1 for MD, P > 0.05) over the final 90 minutes of the oxidation trial. The same observation was noted for all 30 minute intervals, with both carbohydrate beverages demonstrating significantly lower mean FATTOT in comparison to P only (P < 0.021). Assessment of exercise intensity was deemed comparable during the oxidation trial, with no significant differences observed for mean absolute VO2 (L.