The database is a depository of complete information on: the chemical structure of peptides; target species; target object of cell; peptide antimicrobial/haemolytic/cytotoxic activities; and experimental conditions selleck screening library at which activities were estimated. The dbaasp search page allows the user to search peptides according to their structural characteristics, complexity type (monomer,
dimer and two-peptide), source, synthesis type (ribosomal, nonribosomal and synthetic) and target species. The database prediction algorithm provides a tool for rational design of new antimicrobial peptides. dbaasp is accessible at http://www.biomedicine.org.ge/dbaasp/. “
“There is limited information on whether parasites
act as vectors to transmit bacteria in fish. In this trial, we used Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and fluorescent Edwardsiella ictaluri as a model to study the interaction between parasite, bacterium, and fish. The percentage (23–39%) of theronts fluorescing after exposure to E. ictaluri was significantly higher than control theronts (~ 6%) using flow cytometry. Theronts exposed to E. ictaluri at 4 × 107 CFU mL−1 showed a higher percentage (~ 60%) of fluorescent theronts compared to those (42%) exposed to 4 × 103 CFU mL−1 at 4 h. All tomonts (100%) carried the bacterium after exposure to E. ictaluri. http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ch5424802.html Edwardsiella ictaluri survived and replicated during tomont division. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that E. ictaluri was associated with the tomont surface. Among theronts released from tomonts exposed to E. ictaluri, 31–66% were observed with attached E. ictaluri. Sixty percent of fish exposed to theronts treated with 5 × 107E. ictaluri mL−1 were positive for E. ictaluri at 4 h as determined by qPCR or fluorescent microscopy. Fluorescent E. ictaluri were observed on trophonts in skin and gill wet mounts of dead fish. This study demonstrated that Ich could vector E. ictaluri to channel catfish. In aquaculture systems, fish rarely encounter
a single pathogen. Most often, fish are concomitantly infected by multiple disease agents (Shoemaker et al., 2008). Parasitism has been demonstrated to enhance bacterial invasion where parasitic injuries serve as portals of entry Tacrolimus (FK506) (Buchmann & Lindenstrøm, 2002; Busch et al., 2003; Bandilla et al., 2006). Ahne (1985) reported that parasites Argulus foliaceus and Piscicola geometra served as mechanical vectors for spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Vijayan et al. (2005) reported that polychaete worms acted as vectors of white spot syndrome virus in the transmission of white spot disease to the shrimp Penaeus monodon. Cusack & Cone (1985) detected bacterial colonies on the surface of Gyrodactylus by scanning electron microscopy. However, they did not determine whether the bacteria were pathogenic to fish, and thus, the exact role of the bacteria was not clear.