In both cases, the concentration Selleckchem GSK3 inhibitor of tacrolimus decreased, causing acute rejection, but in case 1 acute rejection was improved by administration of MMF, while in case 2 the lack of administration of MMF resulted in significant reactions that caused ischemia of the
uterus and epithelial detachment, and the effects of acute rejection were not avoided. Therefore, the lack of administration of MMF might have been a cause of the failure to overcome acute rejection, and thus administration of three immunosuppressants, including MMF, may be a favorable protocol for maintenance therapy in future UTx experiments in primate models. In case 1, uterine nutrition was given mainly from the left uterine artery and right ovarian vein, and these vessels and three immunosuppressants facilitated recovery of menstruation. However,
menstruation did not continue despite no subsequent observation of a rejection response. Avasimibe concentration This may be due to insufficient blood flow from the uterine artery to the uterus due to severe adhesion of a region surrounding the uterus. Because heparinized saline was used as perfusate and the ischemic time was 3 h or longer, ischemia–reperfusion injury might have been one of the causes of the failure of recovery of uterine function. However, we also used heparinized saline for cynomolgus monkeys with an ischemic time of 4 h in an examination of autologous transplantation of the uterus, with the result of successful pregnancy and childbirth. Thus, we consider that ischemia–reperfusion injury was not a major cause of the failed recovery of uterine function. However, a protective preservation solution may minimize problems caused by ischemic reperfusion
and further studies of the perfusion solution are required. Studies in humans have shown that uterine myometrial tissue can endure cold ischemia for 6–24 h if stored in protective preservation solution, based on histological findings.[13-15] One advantage of use of cynomolgus monkey as a primate MG-132 research buy transplantation model is that the monkey is physiologically and anatomically similar to humans. Therefore, the results should be meaningful for clinical applications in humans. However, there are also several disadvantages. The body size is the same as human infants and this lengthens the surgery time, the animal cost is significant, and postoperative echo and biopsy require sedation with anesthesia. Also, because the pelvis is highly adhesive after surgery, spontaneous pregnancy is not expected due to adhesive tubal obstruction; therefore, ART is required for pregnancy. Embryo transfer is carried out transvaginally in the uterus in humans, whereas the uterine cervix of the cynomolgus monkey is extremely bent, which makes transvaginal embryo transfer technically difficult.