001). Forty-eight per cent of children had etravirine mutation-weighted scores ≥4. There was a trend towards a higher rate of etravirine mutation scores ≥4 among children who received nevirapine than among those on efavirenz (52.8%vs. 31.0%; P=0.12). In the univariate analysis, there was no association between the duration of NNRTI treatment, the CD4 percentage, or plasma HIV selleck RNA and the risk of etravirine resistance. This study investigated the HIV resistance pattern in children with treatment failure on WHO-recommended first-line NNRTI-based ART. Eighty-five per cent of the children had resistance to lamivudine,
and about a quarter of the children had multi-NRTI resistance mutations conferring resistance to all NRTI drugs, which limit opportunities for recycling www.selleckchem.com/products/ch5424802.html NRTIs as a component of the second-line PI-based regimen. Ninety-eight per cent of the children had at least one mutation related to NNRTIs, with half having high-grade etravirine resistance. A CD4 percentage <15% and an HIV RNA >5 log10 copies/mL at the time of genotype testing predicted multi-NRTI resistance. First-line NNRTI-based treatment failure is a major public health problem, especially in children, because of the limited availability of approved second-line
antiretroviral drugs and access to new drugs. Moreover, the lack of routine viral load monitoring in many resource-limited countries leads to delay in early detection of children who have virological failure. This causes accumulation of mutations within the NRTI and NNRTI drug classes until treatment failure is finally diagnosed
on the basis of clinical or immunological criteria . Lapphra et al. reported that 8.4% of Thai children who started NNRTI regimens had treatment failure at 24 months . Jittamala et al.  recently showed that 20% of Thai children had virological failure within 5 years of starting NNRTI-based regimens, with the majority failing in the first 12 months. These reports underscore the need for an understanding of resistance development, in order to design effective second-line regimens, especially if the availability of genotype testing is limited. Recently, the National Health Security Office, selleck products which provides ART to almost all HIV-infected Thai children, reported that 20% of HIV-infected Thai children are receiving second-line PI regimens. The regional Asian network, Treat Asia, which follows over 1000 children, also reported that 20% of children were on second-line ART . The children in our study were from eight large paediatric HIV centres in Thailand. Similar to other studies on children from South Africa  and Thailand [8,18], extensive NRTI mutations were found. The rate of multi-NRTI resistance with at least four TAMs was as high as 23%, which limits the potential for recycling of NRTIs, including tenofovir.